What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is the medical term used to describe increased intraocular pressure, the optic nerve and its  nerve fibers are adversely affected by this rise in pressure, which ultimately and permanently affects your vision. This increase in pressure occurs as a result of the imbalance between the production of certain fluids in your eye and their drainage, either increased production, or decreased drainage will lead to increased total volume of fluid in the eye , and hence leading to higher eye pressure.

When does the glaucoma appear? Does it have anything to do with high blood pressure?

There is no specific age for glaucoma to appear, but it is more common in the elderly. Because the problem of glaucoma is defined as increased eye pressure, some patients may associate it with the problem of hypertension, and they think it is a complication of hypertension or one of its symptoms. This is also a great misconception, glaucoma is a problem related to the imbalance of the production and drainage of fluids in the eye, and has nothing to do with blood pressure.

What are the causes of glaucoma?

Glaucoma occurs as a result of high eye pressure, what does this  mean? And why does it happen?It is known that the fluids of the human body are in a state of balance and are constantly being renewed through a carefully controlled process of production and controlled rates of  drainage. 

if this balance s is disrupted, if the production is greater than normal, or drainage is less than normal, this will result in the accumulation of fluid inside the eye, the intraocular pressure of the eye increases, and the glaucoma begins to appear and  results in damage to the optic nerve, affecting the patient’s vision, and the appearance of  dark spots in the patient’s field of vision begins.

Symptoms of glaucoma:

The symptoms  or glaucoma vary depending on the type of disease, its cause , depending on the speed of progress or delayed presentation of the patient’s condition

The most common form of glaucoma (open angle glaucoma) unfortunately has no warning signs or symptoms and is usually diagnosed during a visit to your eye doctor or ophthalmologist, this is why regular routine eye exams are very important. If this form of glaucoma is not diagnosed  and treated at an early stage it can silently affect the patient’s peripheral vision, gradually encroaching onto the central vision and ultimately blindness. The second less common form (closed angle glaucoma) usually is symptomatic. 

What are the signs and symptoms for both forms?

Signs for common or open angle glaucoma are usually scarce and the disease silently


For the second and less common form of glaucoma called closed angle glaucoma

signs are severe and include:

  1. Severe eye pain
  2. Severe headache
  3. Nausea and vomiting
  4. Sudden severe decrease of visual acuity and clarity
  5. Redness of the eyes

Open-angle glaucoma

This type is the most common among the types of glaucoma, and occurs due to the decreased drainage of the eye fluids from the anterior chamber angle , much like a clogged drain. Because the patient does not feel any symptoms until a relatively late stage, after the optic nerve is affected significantly, and the beginning of the appearance of some dark spots in the field of vision, routine eye examination is imperative to diagnose this illness

Closed angle glaucoma.

This type is also called angle closure glaucoma, are a different subset of glaucoma where the angle of the anterior chamber is closed or narrowed anatomically by normal structures in the eye , and this occurs in relatively smaller sized eyes and varies depending on the environmental,  geographical and racial factors. In  this type the iris moves forward, thereby narrowing the angle of drainage that is formed by the confluence between the iris and the cornea. 

Closed-angle glaucoma may occur suddenly, in this case it is called acute closed-angle glaucoma, and may occur gradually as in  open-angle glaucoma, in which case it is called angle closure glaucoma, 

Symptoms appear more clearly than open-angle glaucoma, and as soon as these symptoms appear, the patient should immediately seek help at an ER and then  a trusted and skilled glaucoma specialist to treat the problem immediately before it worsens,

The most important symptoms of closed corner glaucoma include:

1 – Sudden and severe headache.

2 – severe ocular pain. 

3 – Feeling nauseous up to  vomiting. 

4 – Sudden blurring of vision.

5 – The presence of halos or dark areas in the field of vision.

6 – eye congestion and redness.

Normal tension glaucoma

Optic nerve damage may occur without increased eye pressure, called glaucoma with normal pressure or normal tension glaucoma, this is caused by excess optic nerve sensitivity to pressure, which makes it susceptible to damage, or may occur due to circulatory and perfusion issues that lead to a poor optic nerve blood supply

Best Doctor for Glaucoma Treatment

Dr. Ashraf Hassan Soliman is a  consultant for corneal, cataract and glaucoma surgery and refractive eye surgery and  laser vision correction.

He is One of the best ophthalmologists in Egypt with extensive experience, skill, knowledge in this field.

عن الطبيب

أستاذ طب و جراحة العيون م. طب عين شمس أستشاري جراحات تصحيح عيوب الابصار و المياه البيضاء و القرنية عضو الجمعية الامريكية لعلاج العيون و تصحيح العيون بالليزر زميل المجلس العالمي لجراحة و طب العيون زميل الكلية الملكية لطب و جراحات العيون بأنجلترا

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About the doctor

A consultant specializing in corneal, cataract and Glaucoma Surgery and Refractive surgery in Egypt, Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology – Ain Shams University, Consultant cornea, cataract, and Glaucoma Surgery and Refractive Surgery, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, UK.

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